By F. Koraz. International Reform University.
GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1289 In a reversal of the state-by-state progression of crim- stituents of cannabis displayed antimicrobial action and inalizing marijuana that led to the 1937 Marijuana Trans- antibacterial effects in research studies trusted 50 mg tenormin. The components fer Tax Bill tenormin 100 mg otc, there is a movement underway, state by state, CBC and d-9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been shown to to endorse the legalized use of medical marijuana. By destroy and inhibit the growth of streptococci and 1992, 35 states in the United States had endorsed referen- staphylococci bacteria. A growing body of scientific re- In 2002, the Dutch government announced that a search and many thousands of years of folk use support small trial would begin in the country to study the effects the importance of medical marijuana in treatment of a va- of medical marijuana on patients with multiple riety of illnesses, and the economic value of hemp in the sclerosis. After extending the number of participants in textile, paper, and cordage industries has a long history. The World Health Organization, in a 1998 study, stated that the risks from Cannabis contains chemical compounds known as cannabis use were unlikely to seriously compare to the cannabinoids. Different cannabinoids seem to exert dif- public health risks of the legal drugs, alcohol and tobac- ferent effects on the body after ingestion. And despite thousands of years of human consump- search indicates that these substances have potential tion, not one death has been directly attributed to therapeutic value for pain relief, control of nausea and cannabis use. Bakalar, JD, in a 1995 Journal of the American agent identified to date is 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, known Medical Association article, “Marijuana is also far less as THC. This chemical may constitute as much as 12% addictive and far less subject to abuse than many drugs of the active chemicals in the herb, and is said to be re- now used as muscle relaxants, hypnotics, and analgesics. Cannabis smoke carries even more tars and predominance of this mental lightness or “euphoria” de- other particulate matter than tobacco smoke. But the pends on the balance of other active ingredients and the amount smoked is much less, especially in medical use, freshness of the herb. THC degrades into a component and once marijuana is an openly recognized medicine, known as cannabinol, or CBN. Another chemical component, cannabidiol, known as CBD, has a sedative and mildly General use analgesic effect, and contributes to a somatic heaviness Every part of the cannabis plant, including buds, sometimes experienced by marijuana users. Despite persistent treatment of gonorrhea, angina pectoris (constricting legal restrictions and severe criminal penalties for illicit pain in the chest due to insufficient blood to the heart), use, marijuana continues to be widely used in the United and choking fits. It was also used for insomnia, neural- States, and throughout the world, both for its mood-alter- gia, rheumatism, gastrointestinal disorders, cholera, ing properties and its proven medicinal applications.
A netic inheritance patterns generic 100 mg tenormin visa, the counselor is equipped to simple blood test for PKU is now done routinely in hos- inform the prospective parents of the possibility of their pitals throughout the United States generic 50 mg tenormin fast delivery. The couple may screened immediately after birth, but they should be re- then use this information to make decisions about family tested 24 to 48 hours after taking in protein. Depending on the individuals and their situa- Klinefelter (KLINE-fel-ter) syndrome, which oc- tion, a couple might elect to have no children, have an curs in about 1 in 600 males, is a common cause of un- adoptive family, use a donor gamete, terminate a preg- derdevelopment of the gonads with resulting infertility. In the future, we can anticipate greatly improved Progress in Medical Treatment methods of screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic The mental and physical ravages of many genetic diseases diseases. One such correcting genetic disorders through genetic engineer- disease, called maple syrup urine disease, responds to ing—introducing genetically altered cells to produce very large doses of thiamin along with control of the in- missing factors, such as enzymes or hormones, or even take of certain amino acids. Researchers son disease, in which abnormal accumulations of copper have already made some attempts to supplement failed in the tissue cause tremor, rigidity, uncontrollable stag- genes with healthy ones. In contrast, if the condition is diagnosed and education and better health habits will probably yield treated before the baby reaches the age of 6 months, and greater overall benefits than genetic manipulations. HEREDITY AND HEREDITARY DISEASES ✦ 503 WORD PART MEANING EXAMPLE Treatment and Prevention of Genetic Diseases -centesis tapping, perforation Amniocentesis is a tap of the amniotic fluid. It tive tract flammation and constriction of the air increases blood pressure by causing aorta (a-OR-tah) The largest artery; car- passageways constriction of the blood vessels and ries blood out of the left ventricle of astigmatism (ah-STIG-mah-tizm) Visual stimulating the release of aldosterone the heart defect due to an irregularity in the cur- from the adrenal cortex. Loss of the atelectasis (at-e-LEK-tah-sis) Incomplete pain in the chest, usually caused by ability to speak or write is expressive expansion of the lung; collapsed lung lack of oxygen supply to the heart aphasia; loss of understanding of writ- atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skleh-RO-sis) muscle ten or spoken language is receptive Hardening of the arteries due to the angioplasty AN-je-o-plas-te Use of a bal- aphasia. Anorexia nervosa is a psy- aponeurosis (ap-o-nu-RO-sis) Broad number characteristic of each element chological condition in which a person sheet of fibrous connective tissue that atopic dermatitis (ah-TOP-ik der-mah- may become seriously, even fatally, attaches muscle to bone or to other TI-tis) Skin condition that may involve weakened from lack of food. Toward the head or creatinine (kre-AT-in-in) A nitrogenous which the lungs and thorax can be ex- nearer to the head waste product in the blood panded creatine (KRE-ah-tim) phosphate Com- chromosome (KRO-mo-some) Dark- compound Substance composed of two pound in muscle tissue that stores en- staining, threadlike body in the nu- or more chemical elements ergy in high energy bonds GLOSSARY ✦ GL-5 creatinine (kre-AT-ih-nin) Nitrogenous dendrite (DEN-drite) Fiber of a neuron digestive system (di-JES-tiv) The system waste product eliminated in urine that conducts impulses toward the cell involved in taking in nutrients, con- crenation (kre-NA-shun) Shrinking of a body verting them to a form the body can cell, as when placed in a hypertonic so- deoxyribonucleic (de-OK-se-ri-bo-nu- use and absorbing them into the circu- lution kle-ik) acid (DNA) Genetic material of lation crista (KRIS-tah) Receptor for the sense the cell; makes up the chromosomes in dihydroxycholecalciferol (di-hi-drok-se- of dynamic equilibrium; pl. Techni- GL-10 ✦ GLOSSARY cally, the amount of heat needed to limbic system Area between the cere- macrophage (MAK-ro-faj) Large phago- raise l kg of water 1 centigrade brum and diencephalon of the brain cytic cell that develops from a mono- kinesthesia (kin-es-THE-ze-ah) Sense of that is involved in emotional states and cyte; presents antigen to lymphocytes body movement behavior in immune response Klinefelter (KLINE-fel-ter) syndrome lipid (LIP-id) Type of organic compound, macula (MAK-u-lah) Spot; flat, discol- Genetic disorder involving abnormal one example of which is a fat ored spot on the skin, such as a freckle sex chromosomes, usually an extra X liter (LE-ter) (L) Basic unit of volume in or measles lesion; also called macule; chromosome the metric system. NaCl, ptosis (TO-sis) Dropping down of a part stance, such as that of bone or a tooth table salt) GLOSSARY ✦ GL-15 sagittal (SAJ-ih-tal) Describing a plane bloodstream or other tissues; adj.
Elimination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs Lüllmann order 100 mg tenormin, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved buy 100 mg tenormin free shipping. As regards the former, this fol- tion or the larger the total clearance, the lows from the simple fact that the shorter is the half-life. In drug ab- cumulative excretion in urine; the final sorption from the alimentary tract, the total amount eliminated corresponds to intestinal contents and blood would the amount absorbed. In drug elimination via the enzymes operate in the quasilinear re- kidney, excretion often depends on glo- gion of their concentration-activity merular filtration, i. The resulting expo- nential kinetics is the elimination of al- nential decline is illustrated in (A). The cohol (ethanol), which obeys a linear exponential time course implies con- time course (zero-order kinetics), at stancy of the interval during which the least at blood concentrations > 0. Thus, reaction velocity reach- the initial concentration co, describe a es a plateau at blood ethanol concentra- first-order (exponential) rate process. This notional plasma volume freed of drug per unit of time is termed the clearance. Depending on whether plas- ma concentration falls as a result of uri- nary excretion or metabolic alteration, clearance is considered to be renal or hepatic. Renal and hepatic clearances add up to total clearance (Cltot) in the case of drugs that are eliminated un- changed via the kidney and biotrans- formed in the liver. Pharmacokinetics 45 Concentration (c) of drug in plasma [amount/vol] Co Plasma half life t1 c = c · e-kt 2 t o c = —1 c c : Drug concentration at time t t12 2 o t ln 2 co: Initial drug concentration after t12= —–k administration of drug dose e: Base of natural logarithm k: Elimination constant Unit of time Time (t) Notional plasma volume per unit of time freed of drug = clearance [vol/t] Amount excreted per unit of time [amount/t] Total amount of drug (Amount administered) = Dose excreted Time A. Exponential elimination of drug Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. When an the higher will be the cmax, and the earli- orally administered drug is absorbed er the plasma level will begin to fall from the stomach and intestine, speed again. The AUC tion gradient across the mucosa-blood can thus be used to determine the bio- barrier; and mucosal blood flow.