By J. Ines. Brooklyn College.
An increase in ‘frailty’ (the opposite these demographic changes discount 5 mg fincar fast delivery, the term ‘elderly’ of ‘vigour’) is often accompanied by a similar increase has changed from referring to those over 50 years in pain-associated disease generic fincar 5 mg with visa. However, the management in the early twentieth century, those over 65 of pain requires consideration of the physiological years some 20 years ago, to those over 70 years changes that occur with ageing, in regard to the ability currently. Age brings degenerative disease, often associated with chronic pain, suggesting that pain plays a major part Physiological effects on in the health of the elderly population. Recent US pharmacokinetics and studies show that up to 26% of patients in long-term pharmacodynamics in the care admit to experiencing pain on a daily basis. These result in 192 PAIN IN THE CLINICAL SETTING alterations in both how the tissues handle drugs (phar- elderly. Simple metabolic pathways, such as con- macokinetics) and how drugs affect the body tissues jugation, are less affected. These changes show individual • Renal function changes: variation and there is little data to support speciﬁc – Signiﬁcant reductions in kidney mass and blood values. This is of • Reduced total body water and extra-cellular ﬂuid particular importance where drugs or their compartment. Pharmacodynamics The effects of reduced total body water are to reduce the volume of distribution of water-soluble drugs, With ageing there are changes in: altering the activity levels. This may be exacerbated by acute – Downregulation of peripheral adrenergic recep- disease or malnutrition, altering serum levels of tor function. This conversely, drugs bound to 1-acid glycoprotein may be exacerbated by drugs that cause vasodilata- (e. Increased fat, with reduction in lean body mass, Interestingly, despite all the pharmacokinetic and • resulting in an increased volume of distribution pharmacodynamic changes outlined above, experi- for fat-soluble drugs, prolonging their elimination mental human volunteer research suggests that pain and half-life. Thus, side effects of lipid-soluble sensation alters little with age, but may be altered by agents (e. Clearance typically There are often difﬁculties in pain assessment of decreases 30–40% in those drugs affected, an elderly patient, which may contribute to under- including opioids (e.
Eur J Neurosci 5:1050–1061 Bromm B proven fincar 5mg, Lorenz J (1998) Neurophysiological evaluation of pain purchase 5 mg fincar with amex. Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 107:227–253 BrommB,SchareinE,Vahle-HinzC(2000)Cortexareasinvolvedintheprocessingofnormal and altered pain. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Brown AG, Fyffe REW (1981) Form and function of dorsal horn neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns in cat. J Physiol 321:31–47 Brown AG, Brown PB, Fyffe REW, Pubols LM (1983) Receptive ﬁeld organization and response properties of spinal neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns in the cat. J Physiol 377:575–588 Burstein R, Giesler GJ (1989) Retrogradely labeling of neurons in spinal cord that project directly to nucleus accumbens or the septal nuclei in the rat. Brain Res 497:149–154 Burstein R, Potrebic S (1993) Retrograde labeling of neurons in spinal cord that project directly to the amygdala or the orbital cortex in the rat. J Comp Neurol 335:469–485 Burstein R, Cliffer KD, Giesler GJ (1990a) Cells of origin of the spinohypothalamic tract in the rat. J Comp Neurol 291:329–344 Burstein R, Dado RJ, Giesler GJ (1990b) The cells of origin of the spinothalamic tract of the rat: a quantitative reexamination. Brain Res 511:329–337 Burstein R, Dado RJ, Cliffer KD, Giesler GJ (1991) Physiological characterization of spinohy- pothalamic tract neurons in the lumbar enlargement of rats. J Neurophysiol 66:261–284 Burstein R, Falkowsky O, Borsook D, Strassman A (1996) Distinct lateral and medial pro- jections of the spinohypothalamic tract of the rat. J Comp Neurol 373:549–574 Bushnell MC, Duncan GH, Hofbauer RK, Ha B, Chen JI, Carrier B (1999) Pain perception: is there a role for primary somatosensory cortex? Int Rev Neurobiol 25:39–94 Byers MR, Dong WK (1983) Autoradiographic location of sensory nerve endings in dentin of monkey teeth. Anat Rec 205:441–454 Cain DM, Wacnik PW, Turner M, Wendelschafer-Crabb G, Kennedy WR, Wilcox GL, Simone DA (2001) Functional interactions between tumor and peripheral nerve: changes in excitability and morphology of primary afferent ﬁbers in a murine model of cancer pain. J Neurosci 21:9367–9376 Calcutt NA (2002) Potential mechanisms of neuropathic pain in diabetes. Int Rev Neurobiol 50:205–228 Cameron AA, Cliffer KD, Dougherty PM, Willis WD, Carlton SM (1991) Changes in lectin, GAP-43 and neuropeptide staining in the rat superﬁcial dorsal horn following experi- mental peripheral neuropathy. Neurosci Lett 131:249–252 Cameron AA, Pover CM, Willis WD, Coggeshall RE (1992) Evidence that ﬁne primary affer- ent axons innervate a wider territory in the superﬁcial dorsal horn following peripheral axotomy.
The role of the clinical guidelines is to increase the pretest probability by adequately distinguishing low-risk from high-risk groups proven 5mg fincar. The role of imaging guidelines is to increase the likelihood ratio by recommending the diagnostic test with the highest sensitivity and speciﬁcity generic 5 mg fincar amex. Comprehensive use of clinical and imaging guidelines will improve the posttest probabil- ity, hence, increasing the diagnostic outcome (9). How to Use This Book As these examples illustrate, the EBI process can be lengthy. The literature is overwhelming in scope and somewhat frustrating in methodologic quality. The process of summarizing data can be challenging to the clini- cian not skilled in meta-analysis. The time demands on busy practitioners can limit their appropriate use of the EBI approach. This book can obviate these challenges in the use of EBI and make the EBI accessible to all imagers and users of medical imaging. In the table of con- tents within each chapter you will ﬁnd a series of EBI issues provided as clinically relevant questions. Readers can quickly ﬁnd the relevant clinical question and receive guidance as to the appropriate recommendation based on the literature. Where appropriate, these questions are further broken down by age, gender, or other clinically important circumstances. Following the chapter’s table of contents is a summary of the key points determined from the critical literature review that forms the basis of EBI. Sections on pathophysiology, epidemiology, and cost are next, followed by the goals of imaging and the search methodology.
CHAPTER 12 Strategic and Solution-Focused Couples Therapy Stephen Cheung OUPLES THERAPY IS very complex generic fincar 5 mg otc. Couples therapy must be sensitive to and simultaneously address a myriad of variables fincar 5mg overnight delivery, such as the Cfirst person’s unique life challenges, personal developmental stage, and interpersonal style vis-à-vis those of the second person; the couple’s collective challenges; the couple’s progress in their developmental life cycle; the interaction between the couple; and the interaction between the first person and/or the second person with another outside the couple re- lationship. These variables all impact the couples and the way they per- ceive their problems and their resources to solve their problems (Berg & de Shazer, 1993; Berg & Miller, 1992; Carter & McGoldrick, 1999; Haley, 1973, 1987, 1990, 1996; Madanes, 1981, 1990, 1991; O’Hanlon & Weiner- Davis, 1989). From the inception of psychotherapy until recently, many therapists had a one-size-fits-all mentality toward couples therapy and individual therapy in general. In other words, therapists tended to believe that one kind of therapy would be suitable for all couples and that one type of therapy would adequately address all problems between these couples. However, in the twenty-first century, therapists, informed by modern and postmodern schools of therapy, are more humble and realis- tic, and have rejected the one-size-fits-all approach. Instead, they realize their own limitations and those of their favorite therapy approaches (Cheung, 2001; Corey, 2004; Ivey, D’Andrea, Ivey, & Simek-Morgan, 2002; Prochaska & Norcross, 2003). They further respect the phenomenal world of the individual and trust his or her ability to solve problems. In 194 Strategic and Solution-Focused Couples Therapy 195 this zeitgeist, this chapter presents strategic and solution-focused couples therapy (SSCT) and discusses how SSCT can be beneficially applied to couples. SSCT selectively integrates principles from two therapy ap- proaches: namely, strategic couples therapy (SCT) and solution-focused therapy (SFT). A brief review of the existing theoretical and clinical literature on SCT is first described. Next comes a brief review of the existing theoretical and clinical literature on SFT. The methodology of SSCT that selectively inte- grates principles of SCT and techniques of SFT is then presented. After that, the methodology of SSCT is applied to a specific case to illustrate how it is utilized to address problems presenting in a couple. Last, the chapter explores how cultural and ethnic sensitivity in the application of SSCT can lead to beneficial results.
Direct cost assessment centers on the determination of the resources that are consumed in the process of performing a given imaging study buy fincar 5mg fast delivery, includ- ing ﬁxed costs such as equipment cheap 5 mg fincar overnight delivery, and variable costs such as labor and supplies. Cost analysis often utilizes activity-based costing and time motion studies to determine the resources consumed for a single inter- vention in the context of the complex health care delivery system. Over- head, or indirect cost, assessment includes the costs of buildings, overall administration, taxes, and maintenance that cannot be easily assigned to one particular imaging study. Institutional cost accounting systems may be used to determine both the direct costs of an imaging study and the amount of institutional overhead costs that should be apportioned to that particular test. For example, Medina and colleagues (33) in a vesicoureteral reﬂux imaging study in children with urinary tract infection found a signiﬁcant difference (p <. Summarizing the Data The results of the EBI process are a summary of the literature on the topic, both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative analysis involves at minimum, a descriptive summary of the data, and may include formal meta-analysis where there is sufﬁcient reliably acquired data. Qualitative analysis requires an understanding of error, bias, and the subtleties of experimental design that can affect the reliability of study results. Quali- tative assessment of the literature is covered in detail in Chapter 2; this section focuses on meta-analysis and the quantitative summary of data. The goal of the EBI process is to produce a single summary of all of the data on a particular clinically relevant question. However, the underlying investigations on a particular topic may be too dissimilar in methods or study populations to allow for a simple summary. In such cases, the user of the EBI approach may have to rely on the single study that most closely resembles the clinical subjects upon whom the results are to be applied, or may be able only to reliably estimate a range of possible values for the data. Therefore, some method must be used to combine the results of these studies in a summary statement. Meta-analysis is the method of combining results of multiple studies in a statistically valid manner to determine a summary measure of accuracy or effectiveness (34,35). For diagnostic studies, the summary estimate is generally a summary sensi- tivity and speciﬁcity, or a summary ROC curve. Blackmore The process of performing meta-analysis parallels that of performing primary research.