Q. Vasco. Manhattan College.
He has hypertension discount 10 mg uroxatral with visa, benign prostatic hypertrophy cheap 10 mg uroxatral free shipping, and coronary artery disease but is able to perform activities of daily living. Which of the following statements regarding the primary care assessment of gait and falls in elderly patients is false? Older patients should be assessed yearly for risk of falls B. Risk factors for falls include weakness, gait and balance deficits, visual impairment, depression, poor lighting, and loose carpet in the home 20 BOARD REVIEW C. Exercise programs such as Tai Chi have not been shown to reduce the fall rate, although they do improve balance D. Medications associated with falls include loop diuretics, vasodila- tors, adrenergic antagonists, antidepressants, and sedative-hypnotic agents Key Concept/Objective: To understand the risk factors for falls in the geriatric population, as well as the prevention and management of falls in this population Accidental falls are common and potentially preventable causes of morbidity and mor- tality in elderly adults. The risk factors for falls and the effectiveness of multifactorial interventions to prevent recurrent falls in carefully targeted patients are well estab- lished. Intrinsic risk factors include lower extremity weakness, poor grip strength, gait and balance deficits, impaired performance of daily activities, visual impairment, cog- nitive impairment, and depression. Extrinsic risk factors include use of four or more prescription drugs and environmental impediments such as poor lighting, loose car- pets, and the absence of bathroom safety equipment. The maintenance of normal bal- ance and gait requires the successful integration of sensory (afferent), central nervous (brain and spinal cord), and musculoskeletal systems. The aging process may also predispose patients to falls by increasing postural sway and reducing adaptive reflexes. Patients at risk for falls can be identified through a medical history, physical examination, and a few laboratory studies.
The limbic pathways interconnect these limbic with emotional reactions cheap uroxatral 10mg on line. In many ways it seems that Psychological Reactions: the limbic structures communicate only with each other cheap uroxatral 10 mg without a prescription. Neocortical areas that are involved in limbic What is not clear is how activity in these structures inﬂu- function include portions of the prefrontal ences the rest of the brain. How does the limbic system cortex, the cingulate gyrus, and the parahip- inﬂuence changes in the physiological systems (endocrine pocampal gyrus. Activities in these limbic and autonomic), motor activity (behavior), and the mental cortices (and the associated thalamic nuclei) state (psychological reactions)? These enter understanding the outcome or output of limbic function consciousness and become part of the sub- — the categories of responses are the same as those dis- strate that is used by humans in decision cussed in the Introduction to this section. Physiological Responses: In summary, the limbic system has many connections • Hormonal and “homeostatic” responses: outside itself through which it inﬂuences the hormonal, Hormonal changes, as regulated by the autonomic, motor, and psychological functions of the hypothalamus, are part of the physiological brain. Hans Selye, for tion seem to have an additional function related to the example, has shown how chronic stress formation of new episodic memories, speciﬁcally related inﬂuences our body and may lead to struc- to events and factual information. Why this is so and how tural damage to select areas of the brain (e. The limbic system is intricate and intriguing, provid- • Autonomic responses: A wide number of ing a window into human behavior beyond our sensory parasympathetic and sympathetic responses and motor activities. It is not always clear what each part accompany emotional states, including the contributes to the overall functional system. In addition, diameter of the pupil (in states of fear), sal- the pathways are obscure and, perhaps, confusing.
A high-power view of a biopsy obtained from the central Figure 19 uroxatral 10mg generic. A high-power view of a biopsy obtained from the periph- part of the patellar tendon 72 months after the harvesting procedure eral part of the patellar tendon 72 months after the harvesting procedure showing increased cellularity buy uroxatral 10 mg on line, vascularity, and nonparallel fibers. Transmission electron micrographs from control tendons (a), lateral parts (b), and central parts (c) of the tendons in the study group. The fibrils were less regularly orientated in both the central and lateral part of the harvested tendon compared with normal tendon. Taken together, there is evidence in the litera- The patellar tendon did not regain a normal ture to suggest that the patellar tendon does not ultrastructure as seen on biopsies examined in regain normal ultrastructure after harvesting its TEM six years after the harvesting procedure. Donor-Site Morbidity after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autografts 315 ● Reduced strength and loss of ROM are corre- Biochemical Investigations lated with anterior knee pain after ACL recon- Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) possess a struction using all kinds of autografts. Efforts very high water-retaining capacity and they should therefore be made during the surgical appear in low concentrations in the normal patel- procedure and the rehabilitation process to lar tendon. A similar nerve injury after harvesting GAGs were found in ruptured tendons compared hamstring tendon grafts does not appear to with healthy control tendons. This suggests that factors other than ● If the surgeon wishes to use patellar tendon retained water contributed to the increase in the autografts, efforts to spare the infrapatellar cross-sectional area of the patellar tendon and, nerve(s) should be made during surgery. Collagen type shown that the use of hamstring tendon auto- III has the capacity rapidly to form cross-linked grafts for ACL reconstruction produces laxity intermolecular disulphide bridges. Arthroscopy-assisted anterior cruciate ligament recon- Eriksson has shown that the immunoreactiv- struction using patellar tendon substitution: Two- to ity for collagen types I and III in regenerated four-year follow-up results. Am J Sports Med 1994; 22: semitendinosus tendon was similar to that of 758–767. Arthrometric results of arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using autograft patellar tendon substitution. Buss, DD, RF Warren, TL Wickiewicz, BJ Galinat, and of the donor site after harvesting, fascia lata R Panariello.
On occasion buy discount uroxatral 10 mg line, the ceru- men causes excoriation of the canal walls uroxatral 10mg cheap. PRESBYCUSIS Presbycusis is an age-related cause of decreased hearing acuity. Although the changes associated with presbycusis often start in early adulthood, the decreased acuity of hearing is usually not noticed until the individual is older than 65. In addition to changes associ- ated with aging, onset can be associated with exposure to environmental noise and inﬂu- Copyright © 2006 F. The condition involves sensorineural loss owing to dimin- ished hairy cell function within the cochlea, as well as decreased elasticity of the TM. When presbycusis is suspected, the patient should be referred to a specialist for deﬁnitive diagno- sis and assessment for use of hearing aid(s). The patient may have a family history of hearing loss, and/or a personal history of atherosclerosis and/or diabetes. The physical examination is normal, with exception of audiometric studies, which quantify the hearing loss and affected ranges. Audiometric studies identify the degree of hearing loss, usually affecting the higher fre- quencies. OTOSCLEROSIS Otosclerosis involves the bony structures and results in gradual onset of hearing deﬁcit. It seems to be related to estrogen and can be accelerated by pregnancy. Onset is earlier than presbycusis and lower frequencies are affected ﬁrst. Otosclerosis involves degenerative changes to the middle ear bones such that they lose their vibratory ability. The patient typically complains of painless, progressive changes in hearing.