By I. Dan. Pennsylvania State University at Altoona.

Motor wrote: 149 Who’s Who in Orthopedics There arrived from time to time in the out-patient theaters discount 20gr benzac fast delivery, which are essential features of a modern clinic order benzac 20 gr online, a woman, an outside porter from the railway hospital, became available. Consultants visit from station, and a homemade handcart like a baker’s tray Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Cardiff, on perambulator wheels. The resident staff includes sur- children, perhaps as many as eight, in various forms of geons from England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, splints. A Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United return train had to be caught so the party was soon inspected. It was one of them; but it The outside porter was employed on arrival at was perhaps the least. As early as 1907 it had Merseyside because this was so much cheaper become obvious that extensive accommodation than bringing an assistant from Baschurch. Even and excellent facilities in the central hospital the perambulator wheels were of significance. Many families only one shilling; the ticket for a handcart was had spent their lives in the wilds of Blaenau much more expensive; and it needed only the Ffestiniog, or some remote hamlet, with a geo- good-humored domination of Miss Hunt to per- graphical horizon limited to a 20-miles radius. Doctor Urwick was admitted to hospital, could the week-by-week of Shrewsbury accepted the responsibilities of supervision of after-treatment be continued over medical superintendent. More and more beds many months and years when every hospital visit became available and the facilities were steadily called for one day’s travel in each direction? After the 1914–1918 war, a hutted was not enough for the patient to go to the hos- army hospital was taken over. And so still remain and the private wing, known face- a system of after-care clinics was established—a tiously as Harley Street, consists still of the horse- plan that may now appear obvious but which at boxes, which were unwanted after the first war.

If you intend to produce large amounts of cross tabulations generic benzac 20 gr amex, the more people you contact the better benzac 20gr for sale. It tends to be a general rule in quantitative research that the larger the sample the more accurate your results. However, you have to remember that you are probably re- stricted by time and money – you have to make sure that you construct a sample which will be manageable. Also, you have to account for non-response and you may need to choose a higher proportion of your research population 50 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS TABLE 3: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES PROBABILITY SAMPLES PURPOSIVE SAMPLES The researcher is interested in The researcher decides that he wants finding out about national detention to interview a sample of all pupils rates. He wants to make sure that within a school, regardless of whether every school in the country has an they have been on detention or not. He decides to decides to use a simple random interview a specified number of sample. Using this method the female and male school pupils, a researcher needs to obtain the name specified number of arts, sciences and of every school in the country. He then sends a students and interviewing them until questionnaire to each of the selected his quota is complete. The researcher would have method only those pupils present at to make sure that he obtained the the same time and in the same place name of every school in the country as the researcher have a chance of for this method to work properly. The researcher wants to find out The researcher is interested in about national detention rates, but is carrying out semi-structured interested also in finding out about interviews with pupils who have been school policy concerning detention. He decides that to do this he needs to However, he finds that the school has visit each selected school. To cut not kept accurate records of these down on travel costs, he decides to pupils. Using this approach the school because he will method, geographical ‘clusters’ are be seen by the pupils as an authority chosen and a random sample of figure attached to the school.

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His productivity 161 Who’s Who in Orthopedics and extraordinary accomplishments led to early matory Diseases of Bones and Joints quality benzac 20gr, which was recognition in medical circles in the City of New completed while Dr 20gr benzac fast delivery. Both of these volumes, beautifully written appointed pathologist and director of laboratories and copiously illustrated, remain classic works in at the Hospital for Joint Diseases, a post that he the field to this day. Jaffe’s earliest contributions centered on four decades in that position (and, in fact, in the the endocrinopathies. In the decade between 1924 8 subsequent years during which he remained at and 1933, he reported on experiments that estab- the institution to complete his second book), Dr. His most impor- During his active days he saw many consulta- tant contribution in this phase was the recognition tions on tumors and other lesions of bone and soft of parathyroid control of osteoclastic resorption. Bodansky) opinion based on logic and a remarkable intuitive evaluated chemical changes in the bone and sense. At the same time he collected and cata- serum in relation to disease, with special empha- logued the lesions so that in his later years he sis on alkaline phosphatase activity in disorders might call on this enormous experience for his such as rickets, Paget’s disease, and hyper- descriptive writings. In later years, working princi- the Columbia College of Physicians and Sur- pally with Dr. Louis Lichtenstein, by original geons, New York Medical College, and Albert description or redefinition Dr. Jaffe clearly estab- Einstein College of Medicine, but mostly at the lished the nature of osteoblastoma (1932), Hospital for Joint Diseases, where every individ- osteoid-osteoma (1935), giant-cell tumor (1940), ual who trained or even visited the institution fell eosinophilic granuloma (1940), pigmented vil- under his sway. Although he was a well-organized lonodular synovitis (1941), chondroblastoma lecturer who correctly believed in the necessity (1942), nonossifying fibroma (1942), chon- for reiteration and illustration, Dr. Jaffe was dromyxoid fibroma (1948), and aneurysmal bone more comfortable and perhaps more effective in cyst (1952). Jaffe’s brilliance and extraordinary compe- the microscope with orthopedic or pathology tence did not go unnoticed by his colleagues. In residents or discussing cases at pathology 1953, he became an honorary member of the conferences. Royal Society of Medicine, “in recognition of dis- The great thrust of Dr.

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He had many interests outside medicine: he raced exotic cars at Brooklands in the 1930s cheap benzac 20 gr with mastercard, and his serious interests included philately and pho- tography discount benzac 20 gr online. His pervasive interests were farming, fishing and stalking—he published A Guide to the Stalking of Red Deer in Scotland in 1983. Ian Smillie was a complex character; some- times defensive, always enthusiastic, lacing his discussion and instruction with humor. He could Robert William SMITH be cutting in debate, but equally generous in praise when this was deserved. On one occasion, 1807–1873 an arch-rival attacked his techniques and the knives that he had designed, saying “The only use Robert William Smith spent his entire life in for which I can recommend Mr. He waited for it is in surgical pathology that he made his great- what seemed an age, then continued—“The best est contributions. X can make of these knives surgical literature by its association with a frac- is to sharpen pencils”. Treatise on the Pathology, Diagnosis and Treat- His contribution to knee surgery was immense ment of Neuroma, containing an extensive review and surgeons everywhere will miss him, as will of the literature as well as his own observations. In Boston, in addition to and on stone” by the Irish illustrator Connelly, are being instructor in orthopedic surgery at Harvard for the most part life-size. The monograph itself Medical School (1930–1935) and clinical pro- is unusual, being an elephant folio measuring 48 fessor of orthopedic surgery (1935–1946), he ¥ 70cm, and is said to be the largest book ever became chief of the orthopedic service at the published in Ireland up to that time. This Scandinavian–American mixture had the strongest anglophile leanings, and these were further developed by his contact with British orthopedic surgeons, in particular Sir Robert Jones in the latter half of the First World War, and subsequently. From very early days in his medical career, Smith-Petersen was a pioneer. In the course of his Moynihan Lecture in 1947, he himself told the story of the original planning and execution of the anterior approach to the hip joint in 1917, stimu- lated in the first place by Dr. Subsequently, this approach was developed into the acetabuloplasty operation, which he described in 1936 for the relief of pain and restoration of function in cases of malum coxae senilis, old slipped upper femoral epiphysis, intrapelvic protrusion of the acetabu- lum and coxa plana.