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According to Scott and Lyman (1981:343–344) 250mg depakote overnight delivery, “An account is a linguistic device employed whenever an action is sub- jected to valuative inquiry discount 500 mg depakote with visa.... A statement made by a social actor to explain unanticipated or untoward behavior. These categories differ in that justifications are accounts in which the actor “accepts responsibility for the act... For Scott and Lyman (1981:348) the crucial distinction between excuses and justifications is that in the former case the individual accepts that the behaviour in question is wrong, while in the latter case he or she “asserts its positive value in the face of a claim to the contrary. Self-fulfillment accounts justify behaviour through the rationale that the act is not wrong if it corresponds with the actor’s notion of what is necessary to his or her self-fulfillment, whereas “The sad tale is a selected (often distorted) arrangement of facts that highlight an extremely dismal past, and thus explain the individual’s present state” (Scott and Lyman 1981:349). Below, Using Alternative Therapies: A Deviant Identity | 97 I critically apply Scott and Lyman’s (1981) notions of justifications and excuses, as well as Sykes and Matza’s (1957) techniques of neutralization, in analysing informants’ accounts of their experiences with alternative therapies. Further, I argue that the concept of retrospective reinterpretation of biographies can also be used to shed new light on how people who use alternative therapies reduce the stigma associated with their participation in alternative forms of health care. ALTERNATIVE THERAPY USE AS DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR The language used in the literature to describe alternative therapies has been and remains largely derogatory and pejorative. For example, consistently and over time, alternative therapies have been styled unconventional, nonconventional, unorthodox (Dunfield 1996); unscientific and unproven (Feigen and Tiver 1986); “fuzzy stuff” (Monson 1995:170); or “deviant forms of health service” (Cassee 1970:391). One extreme example concerns Leech’s (1999:1) pronouncement that alternative therapies are “snake oil [which] belongs in the last century, not this or the next. For example, while she uses the term alternative medicine, Monson (1995:168) refers to allopathic health care as “proper orthodox medicine,” implying that alternative therapies are unorthodox and improper. That allopathic medicine is assumed by many to be normative health care and that alternative therapies are not, is something the people who took part in this research are well aware of. For example, when I asked Pam to define alternative therapy, she said, “It’s not going with the norm of the medical area that we have known for ever and ever. So anything that’s not right there in the straight and narrow is going to be alternative” (emphases mine). However, there is more to the deviant identities incurred through the use of alternative therapies than merely the “courtesy stigma” derived from participation in marginalized forms of health care (Goffman 1963:30).

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You will not cheap depakote 250 mg mastercard, of course order depakote 500 mg free shipping, be able to use this approach with illustrations and you may have to substitute careful description and perhaps blackboard sketches to cover essential material. Whatever you do, do not pass around your materials, which may be damaged and, of course, by the time most of the audience receive them, they are no longer directly relevant to what you are saying! Do not start apologising or communicate your sense of ‘panic’ if this should happen. Instead, pause, calmly evaluate your situation, decide on a course of action, and continue. One lecturer we know invites students to check their notes while she simply cleans the board as she thinks through what to do next! We have deliberately avoided the use of the word ‘problem’ in relation to your interaction with students because the ‘problem’ may be with you (that is, your manner, your preparation or presentation, for example) or it could be more in the form of a genuinely motivated intellectual challenge to what you have been doing or saying. It is essential to be clear as to exactly what the challenge is and why it has occurred before you act. We cannot go into all aspects of classroom management and discipline here, but we can identify a number of principles and refer you to more detailed discussions elsewhere (McKeachie’s Teaching Tips is a useful reference). Disruptive behaviour and talking in class are common challenges and must not be ignored, both for the sake of your own concentration and for the majority of students who are there to learn. Simply stopping talking and waiting patiently for quiet usually overcomes minor disturbances. If this happens more than once the other students will usually make their displeasure known to the offenders. If the disruption is more serious, you will have to speak directly to the students concerned and indicate that you are aware of the offence. But do try initially to treat it with humour or you may alienate the rest of the class. If the problem persists, indicate that you will be unable to tolerate the situation again and that you will have to ask them to leave. Make sure you do just this if the problem re- emerges, Do so firmly and calmly. If the situation leads to confrontation, it is probably best if you leave the room.

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