By J. Riordian. University of La Vernee.
In a circumstance where the recommendation of another physician dif- fers significantly best 20 mg levitra soft, the primary physician must be clear with the family and place the second opinion in the perspective of their recommendation cheap 20mg levitra soft with amex. Some- times the words used may sound very different, but the recommendations are very similar. In other circumstances, the recommendation may be dia- metrically opposed and the primary physician must recognize this and ex- plain to the family the reasons for their recommendation. When recom- mendations are diametrically opposed, clear documentation, including the discussions concerning the other opinion, is especially important. This situ- ation has a high risk for disappointment. Often, families have great difficulty in choosing between divergent opinions, even when one opinion is based on published scientific data and the other opinion is completely lacking in any scientific basis (Cases 1. Therefore, a family may base their decision on other family contacts, a therapist’s recommendations, or the personality of the physician. Physicians must understand that it is the family’s responsibility and power to make these choices; therefore, with rare exception, no matter how medically wrong the physician believes these decisions are, the family must be given the right to choose. Only in rare, directly life-threatening circum- stances will a child protective service agency even consider getting involved, and then this involvement is usually very temporary. With a long and chronic condition such as CP, temporary intervention by a child protective agency generally is of no use in interacting with families. With clear documentation of the recommendations, the physician must let the family proceed as they choose; however, we always tell them that we would be happy to see them back at any time. When they undergo treatment against their primary physi- cian’s advice and return, usually after several years, the physician should not make the previous situation a conflict. The family usually feels guilty and may not want to discuss past events.
Functional electrical stimulation means the electrical stimulation is done with the goal of causing a functional muscle contraction 20mg levitra soft sale, such as stimulating the anterior tibialis muscle directly to cause a contrac- tion that produces dorsiflexion levitra soft 20 mg with mastercard. The main uses of FES in children with CP are for wrist extension and ankle dorsiflexion. The muscle may also be acti- vated by stimulating transcutaneously or via percutaneous wires. A major problem with FES in children with intact sensory systems is the level of pain caused by this stimulation. In a group of individuals with hemiplegia, includ- ing mostly adults, the pericutaneous stimulation is less painful and better tolerated than transcutaneous stimulation. There have been no studies that suggest any long-term benefit, and unless long-term benefit can be demonstrated, there is no reason to cause a significant amount of pain by doing a therapy session with electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electric stimulation (TES) is the use of electric stimulation below a level where muscle contraction occurs. The goal of TES is to stimu- late muscle hypertrophy and strength. This technique has been widely pro- moted by Pape et al. This electrical stimulation is applied at night and is 158 Cerebral Palsy Management worn during sleep hours. The level of electrical stimulation is just at or be- low the level a child can feel. No muscle activity is initiated, and the theory for how this stimulation causes muscle hypertrophy is based on the alleged increased blood flow. Daytime TES has been proposed using slightly higher stimulation at a level at which children can feel the stimulation, but where it is not uncomfortable and causes no muscle contraction. This level would be used during therapy sessions to assist in motor learning. Our experience is that there was very minimal functional benefit in the five or six children whom we followed while using TES over a period of time. At this time, there is no good clear indication for the use of either FES or TES in children with CP.
Over a longer time course discount 20mg levitra soft with mastercard, thyroid hormone also increases the level of Na levitra soft 20 mg without prescription,K - ATPase and many of the enzymes of fuel oxidation. Because even at normal room temperature ATP utilization by Na ,K -ATPase accounts for 20% or more of our basal metabolic rate (BMR), changes in its activity can cause relatively large increases in heat production. Thyroid hormone also may increase heat production by stimulating ATP utiliza- In hypothyroid patients, insulin tion in futile cycles (in which reversible ATP-consuming conversions of substrate to release may be suboptimal, product and back to substrate use fuels and, therefore, produce heat). In hyperthyroidism, the degradation and the clearance of insulin are increased. Gastrointestinal-Derived Hormones Affecting effects, plus the increased demand for Fuel Metabolism insulin caused by the changes in glucose metabolism, may lead to varying degrees of In addition to insulin and the counterregulatory hormones discussed, a variety of glucose intolerance in these patients (a con- peptides synthesized in the endocrine cells of the pancreatic islets, or the cells of dition called metathyroid diabetes mellitus). Some of these peptides and their tissue of ori- cant diabetes mellitus. In addition to these peptides, others such as gastrin, motilin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY), and secretin may also influence fuel metabolism but by indirect effects on the synthesis or secretion of insulin or the counterregulatory hormones (Table 43. For example, gastrin induces gastric acid secretion, which ultimately affects nutrient absorption and metabolism. Motilin, secreted by enteroendocrine M cells of the proximal small bowel, stimulates gastric and pancreatic enzyme secretion, which, in turn, influ- ences nutrient digestion. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) from the pancreatic islets reduces gastric emptying and slows upper intestinal motility. Peptide YY (PYY) from the alpha cells in the mature pancreatic islets inhibits gastric acid secretion. Finally, secretin, produced by the enteroendocrine S cells in the proximal small bowel, regulates pancreatic enzyme secretion and inhibits gastrin release and gas- tric acid secretion. Although not directly influencing fuel metabolism, these “gut” hormones have a significant impact on how ingested nutrients are digested and pre- pared for absorption. If digestion or absorption of fuels is altered through a distur- bance in the delicate interplay of all of the peptides, fuel metabolism will be altered as well. Several of these gastrointestinal peptides such as GLP-1 and GIP do not act as direct insulin secretagogues when blood glucose levels are normal but do so after a meal large enough to cause an increase in the blood glucose concen- tration.